What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayan 2

This one is a small step for man. Hello friends Yesterday was the 50th anniversary of moon landing That is, its been exactly 50 years since the day Neil Armstrong set the first step on moon On 21st July 1969, he became the first man on the moon Today, on 22nd July 2019, Chandrayaan is being launched by ISRO, which will look for water on the moon Come lets see Will see we get water on the moon or not ? In every mind, the obvious answers to this question are How would that be possible? Think about it. The surface of the moon might reach a temperature of 125°C when sunlight falls on itIn such a case, even if water exists on the moon, all of it would evaporate and turn to vapourSince the moon has no atmosphere, there’s no place to trap the vapourAll the vapours escape into spaceOn the other hand, when sunlight doesn’t fall on the moon’s surface, its temperature might reach -173°CFor water to exist, it requires (a temperature of) 0°C to 100°CSo, its pretty obvious that liquid water cannot exist on the moonEver since 1960s, a lot of scientists believe that the craters on the moon the pits that are visible on the moonThere’s some region in these craters that’s covered by shadowsthe shadows of the craters fall on themSo the shadowy regions never receive sunlightSo scientists believe that in the regions that never receive sunlight,the temperature there must have always remained below 0°CAs a result of this, some water may exist there, in the form of iceThis is what the Chandrayaan-1 mission proved in 2008Chandrayaan-1 detected water molecules on the moonThere was a moon impact probe in the Chandrayaan-1 missionyou can understand it to be a missile with a lot of sensors that crashed into the moonIt was crash landed on the moon’s surfaceThrough this, water was detected in 40 small craters on the moonAfter this mission, the scientists have estimated that 1. 3 trillion pounds of ice might exist in the shadows of these cratersLater, in 2013, NASA’s LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) went (to the moon) and found outThat there’s a Shackelton CraterShackelton Crater exists near the South Pole and it has been named soThe moon impact probe of Chandrayaan-1 had landed near this craterThe same crater was analyzed by the LRO and it was discovered that 22% of its surface is covered by iceThe South Pole was chosen because its obvious that the North pole and South pole are colderThe chances of sunlight falling here are even lesserfor the ice to melt and turn into vapourIt has been estimated that the temperature here might reach -250°C,which is just a few degrees more than absolute zero temperatureTill date, the missions conducted on the moon’s South Pole , for instance, the Chandrayaan or NASA’s LROAll of these missions were “orbiter missions”Their spacecrafts orbited around the moon and while orbiting, they analyzed the surface of the moon,whether there are chances of finding water there or notThe unique thing about Chandrayaan-2 is that it will be the first mission to actually land a rover on the moon’s surfaceOn the south pole of the moon’s surfaceIt has three parts: First-Orbiter, Second-Lander and Third- Rover. As I’ve explained, the orbiter will orbit the lander will land the spacecraft on the moon has been named “Vikram” The rover has been named “Pragyaan” The rover will come out of the lander and go onto the moon, as you can see in the picture this mission is launched properly and if everything goes according to plan, Then the touchdown date of the lander would be September 19, 2019This mission was approved in 2008 and by 2009, the design of the aircraft was ready earlier, this mission was to be conducted in collaboration with the Russian Space Agency (RSA) would design the lander. The rest of the work would be done by ISROBut Russian Space Agency delayed so much that at first, the date was postponed to 2013Then it got delayed to 2015. And when Russia was (finally) not able to make it,Then ISRO decided to design the lander by itselfISRO designed the entire mission by itself finally, the Chandrayaan-2 will become successful in 2019The aim of this mission is to land on the South Pole of the moon,map out the surface there and create 3D maps of it, analyze the minerals to find out the depth of the Lunar soil and to analyze the ice present in and around the craters and find out how it exists the study of these things will give us an idea about how the solar system originated a lot of other things will be discovered about the formation and evolution of the moon(things like ) How was the moon millions of years ago? How did it exist and how did it get formed later?We will discover and get to know all of this thingsThis mission is very important because of two reasonsThe first reason is that it is very difficult to pull this offSo achieving success here would be a huge achievementThe second and more important reason is that discovering water or ice on the moon would meanthat if the astronauts going there want to establish a permanent colony on the moon, if humans want to build a permanent base on the moon, there would be a need for waterIf there’s no water on the moon, then it would have to be brought from the earthwhich would be a very expensive and difficult taskBut if water is available on the moon in an easy way,in such a way that its easy to access, extract and use that waterThen this astronauts could get water to drink and grow crops on the moonWater is also essential for rocket fuel since it is composed of Hydrogen and OxygenSo water would also find a use thereNASA has planned to send humans on the moon again with the aim of establishing a permanent colony thereSo you can see how quickly this discovery will be put to useTalking about India, a Gaganyaan mission has been planned in 2021. By December 2021, India aims to send humans on the moon for the first time another prime reason why ISRO’s space missions are important for the entire world’s space exploration It is their cost. ISRO’s missions are very cheap I do not mean cheap in a degrading sense. Instead, I mean it in a positive way because they help in saving a lot of moneyChandrayaan- 2 costs 978 crore rupees (that is) 141 million dollars for comparison, NASA’s LRO mission cost 500 million dollars that’s almost five times the cost Also, there was no rover that was landed. It was merely an orbiter orbiting around the moon. This huge amount of costs savings might be beneficial for the entire world as well as NASA